Monday, March 6, 2017

The Scope of Gravitational Waves

From wikicommons
Nasa 2005

On February 11, 2016, LIGO, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, announced in a press release that for the first-time human beings have detected gravitational waves through the process of experimentation. This is rightly taken as a major achievement, according to “formal” scientific theory that humans have detected gravity waves it means gravity officially exist. This negates the fact that calculations that can only work with the inclusion of gravity have been around since the time of Galileo, and probably before if we search and reason with nothing but a scientific mind that wants to know, if interested in English grammar, one can read Shakespear, if interested in racism, read Hitler, lots of others, you are for the battlefield,  people calling themselves scientists yet carrying out racial experiments to prove their race, this is for those interested in gravity strictly, those who want to discuss the nature of gravity given this monumental experiment that took place just over a year ago. . 

Is Gravity a Particle?

The next question that is being asked by the scientific community is, is gravity a particle? This is the next logical question, and has already been answered. Everything is information, everything is discrete, it can be isolated by its unique characteristics, a lion, a star, an electron, a photon, a human, all information is discrete and everything is information. Gravity is a particle, it exists it must be discrete if all information can be used to compute. But of course, there are always those who don’t believe everything is information, maybe some sort of spook exists out there. Is gravity the spook?

LIGO Experiment

The diagram below has the LIGO experiment that detected gravity for the first time in human history. If one is truly interested in gravity, they would be already familiar with this experiment, so will not go into too much detail, videos can always explain the experiment, we must not get caught up, what is important is not the experiment, it’s been done, it was a great success, it is not up for debate, what we want to answer is gravity a particle. Well first we must understand the nature of gravity, the chance the experiment has to offer, the data.



The idea behind the experiment we shoot a light into a mirror in A, the light splits and travels to mirrors in B and C that are set precisely 4 kilometers apart. This is a wonderful experiment in its simplicity, behind a complex theory. When the light returns from B and C back towards A, if there is no disturbance then the light should cancel out, however if there is a disturbance, then the lights do not cancel out, one will arrive before the other, either from C or B, it does not matter, that disturbance is due to gravity, gravity waves.

The experiment worked, there are lots of videos explaining it, the question of this essay is to ask, is gravity discrete or not, what does, what can this experiment tell us?

How Does it Work?

This idea comes from Einstein, Einstein was answering the question, what is time? What are the things that affect time? There is only one thing that affects time, and the answer is known to the San people once ridiculed as Bushmen, the answer is simply a question of distance. How long does it take to get there, it is a half days walk, a morning walk, a full day’s walk, that is all time is, that is why it is relative? The beauty of Einstein is he did not ask what affects gravity, he asked what makes time relative an easier question to answer, and gravity has a huge part in explaining time, and the whole experiment is around the question of time.
The two mirrors at B and C are synchronized in a such a manner that if there is no disturbance, the light returning cancels each other out. To the best of our knowledge they are 4 kilometres from mirror in A. The only disturbance that can affect this is a change is distance, the only thing that can change distance, thereby affecting time, is the pulling and contracting effect of a gravity wave. The pulling and contracting effect of gravity means if gravity waves a passing through, the laser beams inside the vacuum tunnels in B, and C can only not meet if the distances have changed, the distances can only be changed by gravity, though travelling at the same speed in both directions, light find's that the distance has changed.

Precision

We understand that the distance has been affected due to the gravity waves. Gravity waves affect matter in that at one end nature is stretched and other end nature seems compressed. This stretching and compressing effects distance as we understand it in a three-dimensional existence. As distance is affected one beam of light will take slightly longer to complete that 4-kilometer journey, this means the two beams will not cancel each other out even though conditions of the experiment have been calibrated to cancel each other out, this proves the existence of gravity and just to make sure LIGO has two stations 1000’s of kilometers apart just to make sure local events are not affecting the experiment.

The mere fact that the experiment needed arms 4 kilometers long shows the lack of precision of our current instruments. It is what we are using to calibrate that is causing this lack of precision such that just to detect a tiny movement we need to construct experiments of such magnitude, no error possible. What do we know about information, we know it is everything, everything is information, all made up of the same things. All information is discrete meaning it can be isolated, that is how we learn. Gravity is a discrete concept, we can isolate it in equations, if it could not be isolated we could never know what gravity is, people saw apples falling from a tree it is said and they said gravity. If nothing was discrete we would not be able to know the difference between 1 + 2 = 3, and 3 + 1 = 4, it would be meaningless. If nothing was discrete 3 + 7 = 10 might as well be e = mc2 we would not be able to differentiate.

As all information is discrete and can be isolated, all information can be used for computing. Pastoralists learn counting by counting their cows, each cow being a digit, a cow is just information organized in such a manner that we call it a cow. To others the digit is quantum, sub atomic particles.
Are the subatomic particles we are using too big, too heavy for further calibration, meaning we need to go finer with what we are using for measuring, maybe one day gravitons will be used to compute, so small, making precision in our instruments even more precise. You can use stars as your abacus if you like, all information can be isolated and used to compute. But stars are impractical, they are too big, the computer would cover the galaxy.

What is the Nature of Gravity Waves, Are they Particles?

At the end of the day there are those in the old-fashioned mode asking wow, we have proved the existence of gravity waves, now, are they particles. There is no formal proof to the answer, but there was no formal proof of gravity waves until February 2016, but gravity has been included in equations for a very long time. We know everything is discrete and why should gravity escape this? If everything is discrete, it means gravity waves are particles.

With the fortune of hindsight behind us we can ask many questions around the experiment. This is only because people are already eager to start the long journey of holding a gravity particle in the laboratory and say here it is. So when the returning lights do not cancel each other out, light will pass through and hit another mirror, one count. Absolute precision that a light beam can cancel another, but each time they did not cancel each other what was intensity of light hitting the mirror, was it always the same, what differences were there? Was it the same for light returning from B as well as C. We need data before even getting started on proving discreteness by the method of what people need as proof, literally seeing the gravity particle. From that experiment alone they could have set it up with desire to collect data from their great experiment.

Light intensity tells us the nature of the wave, it gives us its frequency just for starters. We can have a regular monotonous pattern. Little data but the beginnings of fully comprehending what these gravity waves are, we are looking at their behavior. That’s what those social scientists who want to control do, look at the behavior of the people, the domestic branch of intelligence, institutions like the FBI, we must collect data, even the simplest of data is data, it’s something.

There could very well be patterns within patterns, merely having a different intensity between light returning from B than that of C is very big news indeed, the nature of the wave is not uniform, behaviour is vastly difference, any difference is enough, it is enough to differentiate, to isolate further, sure it is gravity, but there is differentiation.

Why is this concept of differentiation important even though we know it is all just gravity? We know from quantum tunnelling that though all particles may seem similar with our imprecise calibration, experiment shows differentiation, similar sub-atomic particles per our instrumentation however when given a barrier, some will go through, some will not go through. Different intensity of the light returning depending on origin of destination, be it B, or C, then we have different characteristics within gravity.

There is much more, what if we get a repeating pattern from both sources of returning light There is just so much to learn by merely collecting the simplest data without any physical changes to the experiment, just as the experiment was. Though simple data, the requirements in the precision needed will be to the best in what humans can achieve right now.

Whilst collecting data, they could have, now one must remember this is all in hindsight, but, the could have surrounded B and C with different materials, They could have surrounded them with 2 meter thick concrete, does the pattern in the light intensity change, let’s not be argumentative, let us think, we know that we are thinking of the intensity of the light that passes when the synchronization is broken, intensity does not only include brightness, brightness will not be a factor here, the intensity we are looking at is how long is the light beam, how many nano seconds does the light hit the mirror each time.

What happens when we put an electric field around B and C, what effect does it have on the gravity wave. What if only B has a 2-meter concrete barrier or an electric field, what is the difference in the intensity of the light compared to other experiments. All relatively simple data, but it is needed if we are to look at gravity waves with greater intensity.

Collect the data from the experiment and you will get your experimentation proof that gravity is a particle. Let’s see how this thing behaves.

The Missing Data [added *th March 2017 2 days after original]



One would have thought that the missing data is apparent from reading the above. However, realizing the socio battles, perhaps one should explain further he missing data, vital collection method to allow us suck as much information this phenomenon verified by LIGO, a great feat indeed, it keeps everybody grounded, steps at a time.

The evidence is right in front of us, but it is missed because we where not looking for it. Simplicity is key. Let us look at the light, and only the behavior of the light, in every detail we can from this simple but technologically challenging experiment. How does gravity affect the light, from there we have data, what affects the light, gravity and nothing else we know or can think of.

What is this data that is missing, is it even relevant? Our questions dwell around time, not any other concept of intensity. Time cancels out other forms of intensity, like brightness, amount of energy, how relevant are they today, especially when it comes to gravity and the time period, because a wave loses energy, does it not remain a wave and keep some form of its original pattern, time allows such factors to be included, time simplifies things, though energy is extremely important but as we shall understand time can categorize in a way energy can not. Time can categorize a sick twin as still being in the same category as the other twin in most things besides energy. Time is a dimension that affects all dimensions, it will have more neutrality as a control.

Let’s use time, each moment the precision was lost, synchronization was lost, and effects of gravity waves was registered, how many seconds did this last. We can easily know how many seconds this lasted by timing it. The diagram below shows the data collected when considering such variables, the pattern is just that, artistic, however there is a serious scientific principle to be answered, except the data was seen as not important, therefore no steps where taken to collect this data. What remains a fact is we will collect such data. Adding a timer is one more little step in precision in so precise an experiment.



Note from the diagram above the simplicity. It is just a tally, from a tally we can importantly build a probability function, we are looking at discreetness, how do we know, if a reasonable pattern can be picked out from the data, we have a probability function, we have discreetness. We have a start, if there is a pattern, predictable, we have discreteness, gravity passes a major test of is it information, same like all other information.

The illustration above we can extract more information, by looking at which arm the data came from, this is illustrated in the diagrams below.




Was this further explanation necessary for people talking about gravity, mysteries of information? The most important factor to keep in mind is we are merely looking at time, no preconceived ideas of energy like brightness, This is the most raw of information, how long did it appear for, how bright was it is great, lots of different kinds of energy that will be inherent with gravity and not light. It appeared for 3 units of time, sometimes bright sometimes not so bright, like a ghost over here and over there, always the same one. The laser beams are central to this experiment, why not extract everything from them?

By everything we mean everything, if confident in our technology let us observe the beam of light, does the beam of light, send a pulse as a test, does the beam of light hit the mirrors at B and C at the same time, if yes, what causes spookiness of synchronization being lost. Just as important when we observe if light hits the mirrors at B and C at the same time, how is the pattern illustrated in figures above change, these are interesting questions for quantum mechanics. It is not an insult to point out that this data is very much needed. 

Bhekuzulu Khumalo

Sunday, February 5, 2017

Wind Powered Train


source: wikipedia commons


 The picture below shows a windmill in general. This windmill is used to generate power.



The blades of the windmill have an initial shaft/ sometimes called slow shaft that is connected to a gearbox. 



The gears are designed in such a way that the shaft connected to the generator spins much faster than the initial shaft, the generator produces electricity and can be connected to a grid or a battery.



Below is an electric train, it could also be a diesel train, the type of train does not matter what we are after is using less fossil fuels and creating less emissions. 



The front view of the train looks like below, it could be diesel, or electric collecting power from a third rail, or it collects power from a pantograph. 



Below is a diagram of a controlled wind jet on side of train, this controlled wind turns blades/ a wind turbine. 



The wind turbines are attached to a gearbox through retractable shaft, through an initial shaft and then connected to a generator that produces electricity that is stored in a battery. This batter depending on design can be used to power lights or the train itself aiding the diesel train or the electric train meaning it is drawing less power from the grid. The shaft is retractable because the whole system needs to be retractable and allowed to come out when train hits a viable speed so that there is enough wind to turn the blades or in case a train is going through a tunnel that is not wide enough, or once battery is fully charged there is no need to generate more power. This will add distance for train if it is diesel, add distance to train if it is powered by lithium batteries or hydrogen fuel cells. 



The train with fins is shown below, be it diesel, uses lithium batteries, hydrogen fuel cells or a pantograph. 




The turbines can be added to the top of the train.



When added to the top the view of the train looks like below.



Forget about patents, who can afford looking after one, enjoy the mind. Now if you are a scientist not a politician you will understand that the power of this can be equivalent to a windmill generator that powers into megawatts, depending on how much space of a train car one is willing to take, it is not size of the turbines, its speed of the rotation of shafts, wind could make a train never needing power from the grid or fossil fuel as battery can always be charged. That is a reality. :-D

Bhekuzulu Khumalo

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Bhekuzulu Khumalo

I write about knowledge economics, information, liberty, and freedom